Journal of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science ›› 2022, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (2): 111-123.doi: 10.11947/j.JGGS.2022.0211

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GIS Based FLMP Solving in Densely Populated City Areas: a Case Study in Singapore

Yu Ning Hazel ANG1(),CAO Kai2,3,4   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore 139649, Singapore
    2. School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science (Ministry of Education), East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    4. Key Laboratory of Spatial-temporal Big Data Analysis and Application of Natural Resources in Megacities (Ministry of Natural Resources), Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2021-11-10 Accepted:2022-04-04 Online:2022-06-20 Published:2022-07-22
  • About author:Yu Ning Hazel ANG, E-mail:


With continual population growth in the densely populated cities, e.g., Singapore, traffic congestion is the main transportation problem. As such, Public Transport is deemed as the most sustainable mode of transport. However, pubic transport is often plagued with the First and Last Mile Problem (FLMP), reducing its appeal especially in the densely populated city areas. The FLMP leads to a wide range of complications, in particular, human congestion in public transport. In this research, after a comprehensive discussion of FLMP problem in densely populated city areas, a case study in Singapore, i.e., the Kent Ridge Campus of National University of Singapore (KRC-NUS), has been conducted based on the survey and spatio-temporal analyses. In addition to the investigation of FLMP status in the case study area, a new campus shuttle bus route from an alternative MRT station (Haw Par Villa Station) has also been proposed based on the Tabu Search to alleviate the human congestion and current FLMP status for KRC-NUS. This research not only has successfully addressed the FLMP in the case study area, but also can be a good reference for other areas in densely populated cities to help mitigate FLMPs.

Key words: GIS; First and Last Mile Problem; Tabu Search; Public Transport; Singapore